IMIDOX

ImidoxInjection

ACTIVE CONSTITUENT:
IMIDOCARB DIPROPIONATE 120mg/mL

For the treatment and prevention of Babesiosis in cattle, sheep, horses and dogs, and the treatment of Anaplasmosis in cattle.

PHARMACOLOGY:

Imidocarb dipropionate is a derivative of the carbanilide antiprotozoals. Although the exact mode of action of the drug is not known a possible mechanism is interference with cellular repair and replication through binding with DNA. Imidocarb is highly effective against infections caused by Babesia and Anaplasma spp.

CLINICAL APPLICATION:

Imidox injection is indicated for the control of babesiosis in cattle, sheep, horses and dogs and anaplasmosis in cattle.

What is Babesiosis,
Also known as tick fever or redwater, is caused by tick-borne protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia.
It is characterized by fever, anaemia, icterus and haemoglobinuria.
The most significant parasites causing babesiosis are Babesia bovis in cattle, B. caballi and B. equi in horses, B canis in dogs and B.ovis in sheep.

In endemic areas infection with Babesia is acquired by calves at a young age but infection does not manifest as clinical disease due to natural resistance. Animals infected early act as carriers of infection, remaining immune to clinical disease as long as infection persists. Reinfection constantly occurs in endemic areas. Without reinfection, immunity is lost within several months and clinical disease results.

Clinical disease most commonly occurs when:

  1. Susceptible cattle are transported from a non-endemic to an endemic region
  2. Contact occurs between infected and non-infected cattle
  3. Epidemics occur following introduction of infection to non-endemic areas or sudden increases in tick populations where environmental conditions are favourable
  4. The tick vector population drops due to altered weather patterns or institution of tick control measures, reducing reinfection rate and therefore immunity.

Treatment of clinical cases of babesiosis with Imidox is most effective when cattle are treated early in the course of the disease and in combination with supportive therapy such as provision of shade. Where disease is severe, repeat treatment with Imidox may be required after 24 hours.

Sterilisation of infection with Imidox results in complete elimination of babesial parasites from carrier animals. Elimination of carriers is necessary where movement of cattle from an endemic to a non-endemic area would otherwise result in infection of susceptible cattle.

Prevention of Babesia infection may be achieved by treatment of susceptible animals with Imidox prior to introduction into an endemic area. Over time the level of imidocarb in the animal’s body diminishes, allowing a small number of parasites to establish infection while the animal is still protected by the drug. The result is the development of immunity to disease without the occurrence of clinical signs. However if there is no exposure to infection during the period of waning imidocarb levels, the animal will become susceptible to clinical disease. Outbreaks of babesiosis may be controlled by administration of preventive doses of Imidox to all animals exposed to infection, however vaccination will still be necessary at a later time.

Anaplasmosis in cattle is a tick-borne disease caused by the rickettsial organism Anaplasma marginale which parasitises red blood cells. The course of the disease may be prolonged over months. The severity of disease resulting from infection tends to increase with age, reaching up to 50% mortality in susceptible adult cattle.

The clinical signs of anaplasmosis relate to the acute anaemia that results and include fever, jaundice and emaciation. Decreased milk production and abortion are common.

The clinical signs of anaplasmosis and babesiosis are similar however the dose rates for their treatment differ. It is therefore important to prepare blood smears from suspect cases for laboratory examination in order to distinguish between them.

Imidox is an effective treatment for anaplasmosis in cattle at the recommended dose rate. Supportive therapy should be instituted including provision of shade and plenty of feed and water. In severe cases blood transfusion may be required. Recovered animals should be monitored for approximately 4 weeks following treatment as retreatment may be necessary if relapse occurs. Where anaplasmosis has been diagnosed and clinically ill animals are treated with Imidox, the remaining animals in the herd should be vaccinated with an anaplasmosis vaccine. To reduce risk of transmission of the disease the herd should be dipped several times for tick control.

Directions For Use:

Administer by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection.

Intramuscular injection is recommended for cattle, horses and sheep
subcutaneous injection is recommended for dogs.
For small animals such as sheep and dogs where the dose volume of Imidox may be very small, accuracy of measurement is important. A syringe calibrated in divisions of 0.1mL should be used. The recommended dose rate must not be exceeded.

Babesiosis:

Prevention:
Cattle: 2.5mL per 100kg bodyweight.
Horses, Donkeys, Mules: 2.0mL per 100kg bodyweight.
Dogs: 0.5mL per 10kg bodyweight.
Imidox Injection provides protection against babesiosis for up to 4-6 weeks depending on the species of Babesia involved and the severity of the challenge.

Sterilisation:
Cattle: 2.0mL per 100kg bodyweight.
Horses: B.caballi: 2 doses of 2.0mL per 100kg bodyweight 24 hours apart; B.equi: 4 doses of 4.0mL per 100kg bodyweight at 72 hour intervals. Sterilisation of B. caballi infections can be readily achieved with Imidox, however successful results for B. equi infections can be expected in 60% of cases. Retreatment of refractory cases, with caution, not less than 6 weeks later may significantly improve the success rate.
Donkeys, Mules: B. caballi: 2 doses of 2.0mL per 100kg bodyweight 24 hours apart; B. equi: not recommended.

Treatment:
Cattle: 1.0mL per 100kg bodyweight.
Sheep: 1.0mL per 100kg (0.1mL per 10kg) bodyweight. Recrudescence may occur 1 – 3 weeks following treatment. In such cases a second dose should be administered not less than 7 days after the first dose. Do not exceed the recommended dose rate.
Horses, Donkeys, Mules: 2.0mL per 100kg bodyweight. 2 doses administered 48 hours apart may be required for treatment of infection with B. equi.
Dogs: 0.25 – 0.5mL per 10kg bodyweight.

Anaplasmosis:
Cattle: Treatment, prevention: 2.5mL per 100kg bodyweight.

Withholding Periods:

Meat: Do NOT USE less than 28 days before slaughter for human consumption.

Milk (Cattle): Milk collected from cows within 3 days following treatment MUST NOT BE USED for human consumption or processing.
Milk (Sheep): Milk collected from ewes for the remainder of the lactation following treatment MUST NOT BE USED for human consumption or processing.

Storage & Disposal:

Store between 2ºC and 25ºC (Refrigerate. Do not freeze). Protect from light.

Stability studies have demonstrated Imidox Injection is stable for at least 28 days following first use, providing aseptic technique is followed.

Use the contents of the vial within 28 days of initial broaching and discard any unused portion.
Dispose of empty container by wrapping with paper and putting in garbage.
Discarded needles/sharps should immediately be placed in a designated and appropriately labelled ‘sharps’ container.